Hemorrhage and Embolisation
Hemorrhage is blood escaping from the circulatory system. Bleeding can occur internally, where blood leaks from blood vessels inside the body, or externally, either through a natural opening such as the mouth,nose, ear, urethra, anus or through a break in the skin.
It is a way of blocking blood vessels. It is done for various reasons like to stop bleeding, for cutting off the blood supply to vascular tumors like JNA or uterine fibroid. The various substances used to block the blood vessel are medical glue, gel foam, plastic beads like polyvinyl alcohol particles, tiny metal coils. Once these embolisation material in place in particular vessel, the blood flow along that vessels is stopped.
Procedure of embolisation is done in same way as catheter angiogram but in this catheter is taken close to point where blocking vessels is planned esp. with a microcatheter. Once in final position, embolisation material is delivered till the stasis is achieved.
Common embolisation procedures are Bronchial artery embolisation for hemoptysis (bleeding while coughing) to stop bleeding; gastrointestinal tract bleeding embolisation, Pseudoaneurysm embolisation, pre-operative embolisation of vascular tumor to help surgeon during open surgery so that there will be less intra-operative bleedin, post traumatic bleeding embolisation, etc.